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1. In terms of contemporary political history, the Protestant Reformation occurred at a time of sharpest conflict between

a) emerging nation-states and self-governing small towns

b) the secular and regular clergy

c) emerging nation-states and the church

d) self-governing towns and semi-autonomous local lords

2. Members of the printer's guild generally supported the Reformation because

a) they had an economic stake in fanning religious conflict

b) the membership was literate and sophisticated about the world

c) they were often opposed to reigning governmental authority

d) all of the above

3. What factors contributed to lay criticism of the church?

a) new postal systems and the growth of cities

b) the printing press and a boom in universities

c) new wealth and more travelling

d) all of the above

4. The Modern Devotion was

a) the most popular religious book of the period

b) an ascetic organization of lay people

c) an organization designed to recruit monks and nuns

d) both b and c

5. The popular lay movements that most directly assailed the late medieval church were the

a) Donatists and Arians b) Albigensians and Beghards

c) Waldensians and Beguines d) Lollards and Hussites

6. Luther's Ninety-Five Theses

a) was designed to reconcile his ideas with those of Zwingli

b) challenged the practice of selling indulgences

c) caused his immediate excommunication

d) all of the above

7. An indulgence was

a) a remission of sin

b) an allowance of wrong action by the church

c) given only for true self-sacrifice on a crusade

d) both b and c

8. Ulrich Zwingli's reform guideline was simple and effective:

a) reformers must adhere to a strict moral code

b) whatever lacked literal support in Scripture was to be neither believed nor practiced

c) salvation is to be based on faith alone

d) none of the above

9. The point of dispute between Luther and Zwingli concerned the

a) nature of Christ's presence in the Eucharist

b) condemnation of indulgences

c) acceptance of Extreme Unction as a sacrament

d) use of violence in resisting the Holy Roman Emperor

10. The Spiritualists

a) embraced local traditions and institutions

b) believed that the only religious authority was God's spirit

c) were led by Thomas Muntzer

d) both b and c

11. The Peace of Augsburg recognized which of the following as legal religions?

a) Lutheranism b) Calvinism c) Anabaptism d) both a and b

12. The Schleitheim Confession of 1527

a) explained the difference between Zwingli and Luther

b) became an important test of faith among the Calvinists

c) was a document explaining the tenets of Anabaptism

d) was an apology to Charles V by the Munster radicals

13. The concept of the "elect" was a part of which Protestant sect?

a) Anti-Trinitarians b) Methodists

c) Calvinists d) Anglicans

14. The Council of Trent was

a) strictly under the control of the pope

b) instrumental in changing Catholic doctrine

c) similar to the general councils of the 15th century

d) both b and c

15. As a result of the Council of Trent,

a) steps were taken to curtail the selling of Church offices

b) bishops were allowed to maintain their residence in Rome rather than in their parishes

c) parish priests were required to be neatly dressed, better educated and active among his parishioners

d) both a and c

16. Philip Melanchthon was instrumental in

a) restructuring the University of Wittenberg's curriculum

b) urging scholars to study primary sources

c) focusing university study on history, poetry and other humanist disciplines

d) all of the above

17. During the Reformation, there was a trend toward wet-nursing among the aristocracy because

a) noblemen believed that nursing had a contraceptive affect and robbed them of heirs

b) the Catholic Church encouraged nursing

c) disease was transmitted through mother's milk

d) none of the above

18. Calvinist church organization differed from Catholic in that it

a) stressed regional and local religious authority

b) adopted a centralized episcopal system

c) established local courts throughout Europe to try heretics

d) both a and c

19. Which of the following was true of Calvinism?

a) its appeal was based exclusively upon its religious doctrine

b) Calvinism gave justification to political resistance

c) political resistance made Calvinism a viable religious alternative in France

d) both b and c

20. Henry of Navarre

a) was a politique

b) supported Catholicism as the majority religion of his country

c) tolerated a Protestant minority in his country

d) all of the above

21. The Edict of Nantes

a) recognized Catholic religious freedoms

b) recognized Huguenot religious freedoms and rights of Protestants to participate in French public institutions

c) was promulgated by Henry IV and provided for religious toleration in England

d) both b and c

22. Both Henry III and Henry IV of France

a) were victorious over Huguenot armies

b) were politiques

c) were assassinated

d) maintained close political and religious ties with Spain

23. Which of the following did Philip II of Spain attempt to conquer?

a) the Netherlands, Germany and England

b) Portugal, Italy and France

c) Portugal, the Netherlands and England

d) Portugal, France and Denmark

24. Two men who helped shape and enforce Philip II's policy toward the Netherlands were

a) Henry of Navarre and Don Carlos

b) Count of Egmont and the Duke of Alba

c) Cardinal Granville and the Duke of Alba

d) none of the above

25. The richest area of Philip II's Hapsburg kingdom was

a) Parma b) Netherlands c) Portugal d) Germany

26. The Spanish Fury referred to the

a) destruction of the Aztecs

b) anger of Philip over the destruction of his Armada

c) Antwerp massacre

d) torture of the Inquisition

27. During the reign of Mary I,

a) nearly 300 Catholics were executed

b) the "Marian Exiles" were caught and returned to England for execution

c) Protestant legislation was repealed

d) both a and b

28. Mary, Queen of Scots, was executed because

a) she was a Catholic

b) of her support of the Spanish Armada

c) of her complicity in plots against Elizabeth

d) both b and d

29. A major grievance of the Puritans was the

a) retention of the Catholic ceremony and vestments

b) continuation of the episcopal system of church governance

c) conducting of the mass in Latin

d) both a and b

30. Who singed the "beard of Spain's king"?

a) John Hawkins b) Francis Drake

c) William Cecil d) Walter Raleigh

31. Albrecht of Wallenstein was a

a) devout Catholic military leader b) devout Catholic spiritual leader

c) brilliant and ruthless mercenary d) none of the above

32. The Thirty Years' War and the treaty that followed resulted in

a) French division of and control over the duchies of Germany

b) the death of an estimated one-third of the population of Germany

c) the decentralization of Germany over two centuries to come

d) both b and c

33. The Peace of Augsburg

a) had attempted to freeze the territorial holdings of the Catholics and Lutherans

b) supported Calvinists by encouraging them to expand their land holdings

c) was rejected by the Jesuits

d) none of the above

34. The policy of "thorough" refers to

a) the religious reforms the Puritans advocated

b) Louis XIV's persecution of the Huguenots

c) Charles II's laws aimed at Dutch commercial competition

d) Charles I's attempt at strict efficiency and administrative centralization

35. The major accomplishment of the Long Parliament was

a) a triumph of the bourgeoisie over the aristocracy

b) the abolition of the episcopal system

c) a declaration of political and religious rights against royal government

d) both a and c

36. The "Roundheads" were

a) supporters of Charles I in the Civil War

b) supporters of Parliament in the Civil War

c) the nobility who supported the king

d) none of the above

37. The "Cavaliers" were

a) bodyguards of the king

b) soldiers of Cromwell

c) aristocrats who fled England during the Civil War

d) none of the above

38. The Solemn League and Covenant was

a) a Scottish pledge to maintain their struggle against England until they gained independence

b) a Puritan pledge to resist all political attempts to break apart their religious unity

c) an agreement committing Parliament and the Scots to an episcopal system of church governance

d) an agreement committing Parliament and the Scots to a presbyterian system of church governance

39. From 1649 to 1660, England was in fact a military despotism but officially was called a(n)

a) constitutional monarchy

b) absolute monarchy

c) Puritan republic led by a conservative coalition of generals

d) Puritan republic led by Oliver Cromwell

40. The Clarendon Code was a series of laws which

a) excluded Roman Catholics, Presbyterians and Independents from the political life of the nation

b) proposed complete religious toleration as desired by Charles II

c) joined Ireland, England and Scotland in the formation of Great Britain

d) none of the above

41. The Test Act of 1672

a) was aimed at Charles' brother, James

b) required all subjects to swear an oath against the doctrine of transubstantiation

c) was passed by Parliament

d) all of the above

42. In the last years of his reign, Charles II

a) did not call Parliament

b) had a rather cooperative arrangement with Parliament

c) depended on the Dutch king for financial support

d) had a cooperative arrangement with business corporations

43. The goal of James II's domestic policies was to

a) subject English institutions to the power of the monarchy

b) support Protestants whenever possible in his administration

c) reduce taxes

d) none of the above

44. The Glorious Revolution

a) provided religious tolerance for Protestants, but not for Catholics

b) excluded Presbyterians and Catholics from English religious life

c) assured Puritan religious domination

d) none of the above

45. The "traditional liberties" which William of Orange's invasion preserved were

a) life, liberty and property

b) the Anglican church and Parliamentary government

c) freedom from seizure and arbitrary arrest

d) freedom of assembly and speech

46. The Act of Settlement of 1701

a) deposed James II

b) provided for the Glorious Revolution

c) established a Bill of Rights for England

d) provided for the English crown to go to the House of Hanover if Anne was not survived by her children

47. Under Louis XIII, the government was run by

a) Colbert who promoted mercantilism

b) Mazarin who protected Louis from the Fronde

c) Cardinal Richelieu who promoted campaigns against the Huguenots

d) none of the above

48. Which best characterizes the policies of Richelieu?

a) support for Catholicism at home and abroad

b) hostility toward French nobles, strict neutrality in the Thirty Years' War

c) support the Catholic cause at home, but the Protestant cause in Germany

d) suppression of the Jansenists and revocation of the Edict of Nantes

49. The Jansenists were

a) Catholics supportive of the policies of state

b) Protestants who were persecuted by Louis XIV

c) Catholics whose ideas were considered by Louis XIV

d) a devout religious order created by the pope

50. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV

a) led to the emigration of a quarter million French

b) was a major blunder of Louis' reign

c) closed Protestant schools and exiled Protestant ministers

d) all of the above

ANSWER KEY: Hs 111 '97 - #4

1. a 2. d 3. d 4. b

5. d 6. b 7. a 8. b

9. a 10. d 11. a 12. c

13. c 14. a 15. d 16. d

17. a 18. a 19. d 20. d

21. b 22. c 23. c 24. c

25. b 26. c 27. c 28. c

29. d 30. b 31. c 32. d

33. a 34. d 35. c 36. b

37. d 38. d 39. d 40. a

41. d 42. a 43. a 44. a

45. b 46. d 47. c 48. c

49. c 50. d