1. The Neolithic Revolution is best represented by
a) a permanent, settled existence, with population growth
b) the domestication of animals and the beginning of agriculture
c) humans as hunters and gatherers
d) all of the above

2. Civilization first developed in
a) North America b) Egypt
c) Mesopotamia d) the area of modern day France

3. Place the following eras in proper chronological order:
a) Bronze Age, Paleolithic, Neolithic
b) Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age
c) Paleolithic, Bronze Age, Neolithic
d) Neolithic, Bronze Age, Paleolithic

4. Civilization in the Ancient Near East around 3000 B.C. is characterized by the use of what metal?
a) iron b) bronze c) tin d) copper

5. Who developed the form of writing called cuneiform?
a) the Assyrians b) the Egyptians
c) the Babylonians d) the Sumerians

6. The Code of Hammurabi was
a) an outline of religious practice
b) a body of civil and criminal law
c) the moral teaching of Hammurabi
d) a system of writing developed by the Babylonians

7. Bronze is an alloy of
a) copper and gold b) silver and gold
c) tin and silver d) none of the above

8. Amon­Re was
a) the god of the Underworld
b) worshipped by Akhenaton
c) connected with worship at Al Amarna
d) none of the above

9. Which of the following is incorrect?
a) all religious and political power was united in the pharaoh
b) no law codes were necessary in Egypt; the pharaoh was the direct source of law and justice
c) people obeyed the pharaoh primarily because of his overwhelming military force
d) pharaohs and nobles often had their bodies preserved in order to achieve eternal life

10. The New Kingdom is well known for
a) the new religion of Akhnaton
b) the domination of the Hyksos
c) the imperialism of Thutmose III and Ramses II
d) both a and c

11. The Hittites
a) were a Semitic people who lived near modern Saudi Arabia
b) were successful in part because of their use of iron weapons
c) were finally wiped out by an Egyptian invasion
d) all of the above

12. The Assyrians
a) were a fierce, well­disciplined and cruel people
b) were a culturally superior civilization
c) served as a buffer of the Middle East against the barbarians on its frontiers
d) both a and c

13. The wanax was a
a) Mycenaean king b) Minoan king
c) Minoan priest d) none of the above

14. The Mycenaean civilization collapsed because of
a) the invasion of the Dorians
b) the volcanic eruption of Thera
c) internal conflict among Mycenaean kings and pressure from outside invaders
d) a plague

15. Which qualities would a Homeric hero prize most dearly?
a) strength, teamwork, artistic ability
b) charity, prowess, speaking ability
c) individual prowess, courage, excellence
d) wealth, love of country, the good life

16. The rise of the hoplite phalanx created
a) class tension which later resulted in civil war
b) a bond between the aristocrats and the peasants which helped mute class conflicts
c) a strong oligarchical state in Athens
d) both a and b

17. Aristotle valued the polis very highly because he thought
a) it provided the most efficient military system
b) it organized colonies
c) only the polis provided law and justice
d) the polis was more efficient than the city state

18. The Greeks held an open­air assembly in a place called the
a) agora b) apoikia c) tholos d) acropolis

19. The two main factors which determined the character of Spartan society were the
a) conquest of Arcadia and the revival of trade
b) conquest of Messenia and the enslavement of the Helots
c) rigorous training of a Spartan warrior and the desire for glory
d) none of the above

20. Why were the Spartans compelled to make the army the primary focus of their society?
a) because of the threat of conquest by Corinth
b) because of the danger of a Persian invasion
c) because they wanted to conquer the Peloponnesus
d) because of the threat of rebellion by their slaves slaves

21. Solon's reforms
a) prevented other major internal disturbances in the Athenian state
b) were overturned by the tyrants within a decade
c) allowed Athens to compete with Sparta in the exportation of olive oil
d) solved problems only temporarily

22. Democracy in Athens is best represented by
a) the Council of 500
b) the board of ten generals
c) the assembly of citizens
d) the people's right to ostracize those who represented a threat to the democracy

23. Which of the following best approximates the moral teaching of the priests of Apollo?
a) the world governed by the guiding principle of logos
b) a good man should harm his enemies and protect his friends
c) without moderation, man faces dire consequences
d) the good life is to seek glory and display bravery

24. The Athenian victory at Marathon in 490 B.C.
a) was due to the leadership of Miltiades
b) was important for the positive contributions of Athens in the 5th century
c) did not provide permanent protection for Athens from the Persian threat
d) all of the above

25. The main purpose of the Delian League was
a) to free Greeks under Persian rule
b) to protect against a Persian return
c) to obtain booty from Persia
d) all of the above

26. The leader of the Athenian expedition against Syracuse was
a) Cleon b) Lysander c) Alcibiades d) Brasidas

27. Which of the following best describes the plays of Euripides?
a) political satire
b) powerful cosmic themes and thundering language
c) pride in the superiority of the Greek polis
d) the psychology and behavior of individual human beings

28. Plato sought a solution to the crisis of the polis in
a) conquest and economic expansion
b) rule of philosophers, abolition of private property and family
c) rule by the moderate middle class
d) devoted support of the war against Sparta

29. The able king of Macedon around 350 B.C. was
a) Alexander the Great b) Epaminondas
c) Isocrates d) none of the above

30. At the time of Alexander's invasion, who was king of Persia?
a) Xerxes b) Darius III
c) Cyrus the Great d) Darius I

31. Which best describes Alexander's early strategy against Persia?
a) siege the most important cities and wear the opposition down over a long period of time
b) attack Syria first since it was the key to Persian strength
c) seek quick and decisive battles to gain money and supplies from the conquered territory
d) all of the above

32. Alexander was forced to end his conquest in India because of
a) a mutiny by his men
b) a lack of funds
c) a fever which eventually killed him
d) his assassination

33. For the first 75 years after Alexander's death the world ruled by his successors enjoyed a realistic prosperity because of
a) opportunities in the east which relieved Greek cities of the burden of the poor
b) the great amount of money put into circulation increased economic activity
c) the opening of vast new territories to Greek trade
d) all of the above

34. Which best describes the beliefs of Epicurus?
a) pursuit of happiness, political atheism, withdrawal from public life
b) pursuit of knowledge, belief in gods, public­spiritedness
c) a life in harmony with god and nature, knowledge of good and evil, avoidance of passion
d) idealism, literary and historical studies, "indifference"

35. Which best describes the philosophy of the Stoics?
a) denunciation of convention, advocacy of a crude life in accordance with nature
b) a life in harmony with god and nature, knowledge of good and evil, avoidance of passion
c) since nothing can be known, nothing matters
d) both a and c

36. The scholars of Alexandria
a) administered a great library
b) composed tragedies and political comedies
c) copied, edited and criticized past Greek literature
d) both a and c

37. The bulk of evidence coming from the law, from philosophical writings and from information about the conditions of everyday life indicates that women
a) were excluded from most aspects of public life
b) in Athens had more political responsibilities than women in Sparta
c) enjoyed voting but not property rights
d) controlled their dowries throughout marriage

38. The principal area occupied by the Etruscans was
a) the valley of the Danube b) Western Sicily
c) Transalpine Gaul d) Etruria (Tuscany)

39. Etruscan influence on the Romans was greatest in
a) societal organization b) religion
c) political organization d) military organization

40. The duties of the tribune were to
a) sacrifice to the gods
b) maintain the records of the Senate
c) protect the interests of the patricians
d) protect the plebeians from the arbitrary power of the magistrates

41. The Roman victory over the Samnites
a) resulted in Roman control over all of Italy
b) improved trade between the Greek cities of southern Italy and Rome
c) brought Rome into contact with the Greek cities of southern Italy
d) both a and b

42. The worst defeat in Roman history occurred at the battle of
a) Syracuse b) Mylae c) Cannae d) Zama

43. Latifundia were
a) large houses of the aristocracy
b) large plantations used for growing cash crops and worked by slaves
c) a political alliance
d) gladiatorial training schools

44. Tiberius Gracchus was elected tribune in 133 B.C. on a platform of
a) Italian citizenship
b) land reform
c) strong defense against the Spanish tribes
d) all of the above

45. "Optimates" were those men who
a) wanted the secret ballot at all elections and assemblies
b) felt that Rome would survive any crisis
c) were ineligible for the tribunate
d) supported the traditional role of the Senate

46. Marius defeated which of the following:
a) Cimbri and Teutones b) Jugurtha
c) Italian allies d) both a and b

47. Caesar was responsible for the conquest of
a) Egypt b) Spain c) Gaul d) Britain

48. Crassus died
a) while subduing a slave revolt
b) while fighting the Parthians
c) after having been imprisoned by Caesar
d) none of the above

49. Caesar's reforms sought
a) to make rational and orderly what was traditional and chaotic
b) to undo the reforms of Sulla
c) to support his de facto position as "king of Rome"
d) to better control the military forces

50. In terms of culture and religion, the Romans owed their greatest debt to the
a) Etruscans b) Greeks c) Phoenicians d) Samnites

1. b 2. c 3. b 4. b

5. d 6. b 7. d 8. d

9. c 10. d 11. b 12. d

13. a 14. c 15. c 16. b

17. c 18. a 19. b 20. d

21. d 22. c 23. c 24. d

25. d 26. c 27. d 28. b

29. d 30. b 31. c 32. a

33. d 34. a 35. b 36. d

37. a 38. d 39. b 40. d

41. c 42. c 43. b 44. b

45. d 46. d 47. c 48. b

49. a 50. b