1. The League of Nations
a) proved to be an obstruction to Hitler's goals of conquest
b) prevented the Japanese takeover of Manchuria
c) condemned Hitler's decision to rearm Germany
d) none of the above
2. Lebensraum refers to
a) living space for the growing German nation
b) the name for the policy of remilitarization of the Rhineland
c) the superiority of the Aryan race
d) the annexation of France
3. When Hitler announced his intention to rearm Germany,
a) the League of Nations formally condemned the action
b) France and Britain were hostile
c) nothing was done to prevent it
d) all of the above
4. The Spanish Civil War
a) was fought between the forces of Communism and Fascism
b) resulted in a republican victory led by Francisco Franco
c) brought Germany and Italy closer together
d) was just a small war of little consequence and affected Europe very little
5. Which country supported the republican forces with military aid in the Spanish Civil War?
a) Soviet Union b) United States c) Great Britain d) France
6. The Anschluss was
a) another clear violation of Versailles
b) especially threatening to the security of Czechoslovakia and France
c) the result of a plebiscite held in Austria
d) both a and b
7. The Sudetenland was ceded to the Germans through the policy supported by
a) Henlein b) Chamberlain c) Daladier d) both b and c
8. The German general who was successful against the British in North Africa was
a) Moeltke b) von Ludendorff
c) von Hindenburg d) Rommel
9. The secret provision of the Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact was
a) the division of Czechoslovakia between Russia and Germany
b) military equipment supplied to Germany by the Soviet Union
c) the partitioning of Poland between Russia and Germany
d) Russian intelligence information which would make possible an invasion of England
10. Blitzkrieg was
a) the code name for the German invasion of Russia
b) a new style of warfare which employed massed armor columns supported by airpower
c) the German term denoting a counteroffensive
d) both a and b
11. Dunkirk was a famous episode in 1940 in which
a) German airpower was defeated
b) over 300,000 allied troops were evacuated from France
c) France surrendered to Germany
d) Belgium finally surrendered after a courageous defense
12. Charles de Gaulle
a) organized the French National Committee of Liberation
b) controlled southern France and resisted against the Germans
c) set up a dictatorial regime in southern France
d) none of the above
13. Which best describes the effects of the massive Anglo-American aerial bombardment of Germany?
a) it had little effect on the war
b) concentrated attacks on industrial targets did significant damage
c) precision bombing had little effect, but terror bombing undermined German morale severely
d) in all its aspects, the bombardment was a great success
14. The Japanese war faction which was responsible for the attack on Pearl Harbor was led by
a) General Toranaga b) Emperor Hirohito
c) General Tojo d) Admiral Yamamoto
15. The Battle of the Bulge
a) was a defeat for the allies
b) was a clear victory for the allies
c) occurred before the D-Day invasion
d) opened the road to Berlin for the allies
16. At the conference at Potsdam in 1945, the participants were
a) Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin b) Truman, Attlee and Stalin
c) Roosevelt, Attlee and Stalin d) Truman, Churchill and Stalin
17. The "blitz" referred to the
a) German invasion of France in May 1940
b) Battle of Britain in August 1940
c) German air raids over Britain during the winter and spring of 1940-1941
d) the British retreat from Dunkirk
18. The creation of the United Nations stemmed from
a) a campaign for "world morality"
b) a desire to reconcile Germans and Jews
c) the desire to resolve international problems
d) a need to establish definitive spheres of influence between the superpowers
19. In 1956, the real motive behind British and French intervention in the war between Egypt and Israel was to
a) separate the combatants b) seize the Egyptian oil fields
c) seize the Suez Canal d) ensure Palestinian independence
20. The Suez Canal crisis of 1956 resulted in
a) a humiliating diplomatic defeat for Britain and France
b) an American presence in Egypt
c) the overthrow of the Israeli government
d) both a and c
21. The Berlin Wall was erected
a) to halt the stream of refugees from East Berlin into West Berlin
b) as a symbol to the West of the closed nature of Communist society
c) in response to the Cuban Missile Crisis
d) under the presidency of Lyndon Johnson
22. The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963
a) was not taken seriously by either superpower
b) marked the beginning of a reduction in tensions between the superpowers
c) was fostered by Willy Brandt
d) both b and c
23. During the presidency of Richard Nixon, the United States
a) sought to close the U.S.S.R. out of world markets
b) worked for detente
c) retreated into relative isolation
d) sought measures for the respect of human rights throughout the world
24. The Reagan administration in the early 1980's
a) maintained Carter's emphasis on human rights in its discussions with the Soviets
b) sharply increased the rhetoric against the Soviet Union
c) speeded up efforts in favor of the SALT II treaty
d) none of the above
25. A cornerstone of post-war United States Asian policy was
a) a weak Korea
b) the punishment of Japan
c) the maintenance of a democratic Japan
d) the initiation of big business into Japan
26. The Vietnamese resistance to French colonial rule was organized by
a) Mao Tse-Tung b) Ho Chi Minh c) Dien Bien Phu d) Ngo Dinh Diem
27. The major opposition to the Diem government came from
a) Buddhist monks b) Roman Catholics
c) the Vietcong d) both a and b
28. The Vietnam War
a) grew out of a power vacuum left by decolonization
b) diverted the attention of the United States away from Europe
c) convinced many Americans born after World War II that the U.S. was trying to keep colonialism alive
d) all of the above
29. The Yom Kippur war in 1973 was prosecuted by Egypt in order to
a) regain territory lost in 1967
b) weaken western oil interests in the Middle East
c) force an armed truce between Arabs and Jews
d) expel the Soviet influence from Egypt
30. The Camp David Accords of 1978
a) demanded that Israel give up the Golan Heights
b) included Saudi Arabia and Syria as well
c) provided a framework through which negotiations on Middle East questions have taken place
d) none of the above
31. Why did Israeli troops invade Lebanon in 1982?
a) they were provoked by Syrian forces
b) they were attacked by Lebanese forces
c) they attempted to add more territory to the Golan Heights as a buffer zone
d) they sought to destroy PLO bases and disperse the leadership
32. The Intifada is
a) an Arab uprising against Israeli rule of the West Bank
b) an Arab uprising against Israeli rule on the Golan Heights
c) the land annexed by Israel in 1982
d) a Palestinian terrorist organization
33. The Civil Rights Act of 1964
a) cleared the way for blacks to vote
b) desegregated public accommodations
c) desegregated public schools
d) all of the above
34. Lyndon Johnson's Great Society program
a) ended an era of major federal government social initiatives
b) was responsible for a weakening of support for the Vietnam War
c) established the social security system
d) both a and c
35. Since 1945, European unity has been achieved primarily in which sphere?
a) political b) social c) economic d) technological
36. The emerging common language of business and even some academic fields in Europe is
a) French b) German c) English d) Spanish
37. Europe's population during the 20th century has
a) been reduced overall due to two world wars
b) grown over the course of the century
c) been reduced overall because of famine and deprivation associated with disease and war
d) both a and c
38. The spread of welfare legislation was closely connected to the
a) Cold War
b) rise in population following World War II
c) process of decolonization
d) decline of population in the cities following World War II
39. "Student experience" refers to
a) leaving home and settling for several years in a community composed of late adolescents
b) removing oneself from society at large
c) security and insolation from the "real world"
d) none of the above
40. Which best characterizes the role of universities in 20th-century intellectual life?
a) the new media of radio and television have rendered them unimportant
b) they have lost their central position to political parties
c) they have exerted more influence than at any other time since the Reformation
d) both a and b
41. At the turn of the century,
a) the number of married women in the work force had declined
b) over 50% of women were employed outside the home
c) women were beginning to enter politics as mayors and representatives
d) none of the above
42. Which of the following proved crucial to the disillusionment of the intellectuals in the 20th century?
a) Soviet purge trials of 1936 and the Nazi-Soviet pact of 1939
b) the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939
c) the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956
d) all of the above
43. Kierkegaard's major criticism of Hegel's philosophy was
a) it was too rational
b) it was not practical and too intellectualized
c) it attempted to contain all human experience within abstract categories
d) both a and c
44. The existentialists saw human beings as
a) compelled to formulate their own ethical values
b) morally corrupt
c) unable to depend on traditional religion or social customs
d) both a and c
45. Which statement would Jean-Paul Sartre be most likely to accept?
a) God does not exist, therefore man is doomed to despair
b) God exists, and man depends on his grace
c) whether God exists or not is irrelevant, for man must make himself
d) God does not exist and man should rely on reason alone
46. Which statement would Karl Barth have been most likely to accept?
a) religion is more a human than divine phenomenon
b) humankind is transcended by God and depends on his grace
c) man must lay down values for himself
d) reason alone can improve humanity's condition
47. Paul Tillich is best known for his
a) liberal theology b) conservative theology
c) "spiritual sameness" theory d) "emancipation of mankind" theory
48. In the modern world,
a) rationalism in the processes of everyday life rarely touches us
b) the use of reason promises the best hope for progress
c) problems of constitutional order are becoming less a concern for mankind
d) problems of human rights violations should be reduced with the new worldwide emphasis on spiritually
49. The Solidarity Movement in Poland worked
a) for free trade unions and democratic government
b) to eliminate capitalism from the Polish economy
c) to reimpose Jaruzelski's control after 1987
d) to bring Lech Walesa home from exile
50. The coup of August 1991
a) swept Gorbachev into power
b) was successful in eliminating Boris Yeltsin as a political contender
c) resulted in Gorbachev's humiliation and gradual loss of power
d) both a and b